• Pretreatment
  • Ultra pure water
  • Point-of-use water polishing systems
  • Sanitization
  • Bacteria control

Case Studies


Water purification to the highest standards

Today’s research and diagnostic laboratories require purified water that does not impact test results. As testing equipment becomes more sensitive and industry regulations become more stringent, life science and analytical labs must have complete confidence that their point-of-use water systems will provide optimum water quality, every time.

The following chart illustrates the water consumption in a “typical” laboratory.


The Importance of Water Quality is Critical

The effects of water quality can often be overlooked, but as water is the most common solvent used in laboratories, its quality is critical to obtaining the expected results. Similarly using poor water quality in a healthcare environment or in clinical diagnostics can potentially be life threatening.

Achieving the correct water quality depends on selecting the correct purification technologies and a system design that accurately measures and monitors contaminants. Producing pure water is only part of the equation; validating quality, storing water and maintenance are also very important to ensuring you have the water quality you need.

Different levels of quality are required for a vast range of applications; therefore different grades of water must be purified and utilized to match the required procedures. Internationally recognized water quality standards define the different types of water quality starting with Type 1 through to Type 3 as shown below:

Grade of Water Resisitivity (M-cm) TOC (ppb) Bacteria (CFU/ml) Endotoxin (EU/ml) Typical Applications
Type 1+ 18.2 <5 <1 <0.03 GF-AAS, ICP-MS, trace metal detection
Type 1 >18 <10 <10 <0.03 HPLC, GC, AAS, immunocytochemistry, mammalian cell culture, plant tissue culture
Type 2+ >10 <50 <10 NA General laboratory applications requiring higher inorganic purity
Type 2 >1 <50 <100 NA Feed to ultra pure type 1 systems, feed to clinical analyzers, electrochemistry, sample dilution, media preparation, radioimmunoassay
Type 3 >0.05 <200 <1000 NA Feed to ultra pure water type 1 systems, feed to washing machines, dishwashers, autoclaves